RENAISSANCE 1420 - 1575

The name „Renaissance" was attributed to this epoch only in the early 19th century. As by its origin the word means re-birth of Antiquity[1]. Italy is considered the cradle of the Renaissance, but we can find characteristic signs of this period from 1500 on in Austria and Germany, too. In France was mainly established the Renaissance architecture.[2] In Italian cities were founded centres of knowledge moving humans away from medieval common concepts and putting the focus on human beings. Persons educated in a humanistic way according to the theories of the ancient world were supposed to be the most able to exploit his/her talents and to contribute to the newly structured social life. From an historical point of view[3] the Medici gained strength in Florence and became important mecenes of art. In France initiated the inquisition, arabic occupying forces were expulsed from Spain, Columbus discovered America in 1492. Luther's theses were published and the Reformation began. This period was marked by the Peasants' War, the Turkish siege and disturbances in different parts of today's Europe. From an artistic point of view, the central perspective had been used for creating artworks as close to nature as possible. Architectures were recreated on the base of examples from Antiquity and constructed following the golden section rules. The perfect harmonious beauty was measure of all things. Beyond these innovations letterpress printing was invented, globes and world maps were created, the foundation for the heliocentrism was laid and so on.

The woman's role in this era was still being wife and mother. She had been educated for acquiring practical skills for marriage and domestic life, such as cooking, handcraft, education of children, household keeping.[4] Only a few women were educated in humanistic manner, were permitted to work in familiy kept companies or to live as nuns in convents. Most women worked in the fields. Childrens' mortality rate, mortality at birth or risk of diseases were very high.[5] In art, women were represented as Mary or Eve in a Christian context, as Venus or any other mytholigical figure. Noble or wealthy dames were portrayed with or without their families. Since in this era a revival of Antiquity occurred women increasingly had been depicted nude, as Venus or as mythological figure, but mostly genitalia only are indicated by a pubic triangle. Except a few, mainly German and Dutch artists who also indicate pubic hair and vaginal labia.

 11-27-Geburt der Venus Botticelli-Vorsch  11-28-Garten der Lueste Bosch-Vorsch  11-29-Adam und Eva Duerer-Vorsch  11-30-Vulva und Anus Vinci-Vorsch 11-31-Schlummernde Venus Giorgione-Vorsch 11-32-Neujahrsgruss mit drei Hexen Grien-Vorsch 11-33-Der Tod und das Maedchen Grien-Vorsch  11-34-Ruhende Quellnymphe Cranach-Vorsch
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