There are various reasons to perform surgery on the male or female breasts, such as medical reasons in the context of breast cancer surgery or aesthetic reasons. [1]

Medical indications
Especially female breast tissue is highly predisposed to cancer. The change of tissue can already be felt in a very early stage. Additionally, a palpation should always be part of a gynecological routine physical because the earlier breast cancer is discovered the higher are the chances for a cure. [1] [2]

If clear lumps are found in a routine physical, a biopsy serves to remove breast tissue in order to examine it in the laboratory. A mammography provides additional information for an initial diagnosis. In an early stage, a breast-preserving operation is performed nowadays. Breast reconstruction is a method which offers good results and provides vitality after surgery. In a later stage, the removal of breast tissue might be necessary. [1] [2]

Cosmetic surgery
Plastic surgery offers many ways to form breast tissue according to individual desires. Breasts can be lifted, augmented or reduced. For a breast augmentation an implant, either filled with saline-solution or with silicone-gel is implanted; moreover, this approach can include the application of transplanted autologous skin flaps harvested from the woman's body. Breast augmentation is also performed in the context of a sex reassignment surgery. [3] [SEX REASSIGNMENT SURGERY]
The costs of a mammoplasty are between 4.000 and 7.000 Euros. [4]

Risks and side effects
Every procedure carries a certain risk. Even if breast surgery is a common operation in modern medicine bleedings, wound healing disorders and infections might appear. [1]

A common medical complication is capsular contracture which occurs when the collagen-fiber capsule tightens and squeezes the breast implant; as such, it is a medical complication that can be very painful and discomforting, and might distort the aesthetics of the breast implant and the breast. Around 15 per cent of women suffer from capsular contracture after ten years. Due to the development of better material as well as more modern techniques, these complications fortunately lessen. [4]

After a mammoplasty, especially when an implant is used, an annual check-up is necessary. In case of any change in shape or consistency, a visit to the doctor is recommended. [4]