Surgery (from the Greek: cheir – "hand", and ergon – "work") is an ancient medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate and/or treat a pathological condition such as disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas. [1] [2] [3]

Cosmetic surgery (medical term: plastic and aesthetic surgery) is a relatively young kind of surgery which is an optional procedure performed on (parts of) the body with the purpose of changing a person's appearance according to individual desires or to recreate the form and function of various body parts after accidents or heavy diseases. [4]

While a psychological evaluation is required by law for minors who choose an individual makeover, for adults it's not necessary. [5] Instead of questioning emotional and cultural motives, a lot of money is made with this adjustment to prevalent norms and ideals. After all, a cosmetic surgery costs between 500 and 10.000 Euros. [6]

Next to tummy tucks [7] or Botox injections [8], there are other special procedures especially for the female body in order to form it according to prevalent norms. Designer bodies, depicted in pornography and advertisements, set unrealistic standards for which plastic and aesthetic surgery offers solutions. [2] [9]

Every person has the right to deal with one's own body oneself. Lifestyle, clothing, food, consumer behavior and leisure activities not only form one's mind but also one's body. Many people critically face the decision to undergo procedures which are dangerous to health out of aesthetic reasons. [10]

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