The World Health Organisation (WHO) defines transgender like this: „the wish to live and be recognized as member of the other sex". According to current statistics, 0.3% of all people have a transgender identity. [1] [2]

The word „transsexual" is outdated, since it's not about sexual orientation but first and foremost about an experienced disagreement with the own sex and identity. This is why the term „transgender" is more suitable. [1] [3]
The sexual orientation of transgender people can vary. Some feel sexually attracted by women or men only, others by both. [1] [3]
How does medicine deal with people who are unsatisfied with their biological sex and wish for change?

First, a conversational therapy is offered which is supposed to explore one's own identity. People concerned are encouraged to try out various gender roles, reflect on this experience and process it. [3] [4] [5]

After therapy, the result decides on further measures. If a sex reassignment surgery is asked for, a hormone therapy will be initiated. Only years after, the surgery can be performed. [PROCEDURES] In Austria, the charges are absorbed partly or even fully by health insurances. In exchange, various psychological reports are necessary.
Some associations help to cover the arising expenses. [1] [4] [5]

In other cultures, people who belong to the third gender, such as transgender and intersexual people receive respect and tolerance and sometimes they are even worshipped as bringers of good luck. Among those cultures are the Fa'afafine in Polynesia, the Muxe in Mexica, the Hijiras in India and the tradition oft he two-spirits Native Americans. [6] [7] [8] [9]

In western culture, transgender people alarmingly often become victims of verbal, physical and sexual violence. For many, a sex reassignment surgery ist he only chance to find themselves in their body and be able to lead a happy life. [10] [11]

„It's not democracy's task to protect the right of the strong and powerful but of the weak and powerless."
(Reimo Mets, Estonian lawyer and political activist, 2015, translated by Christine Wilhelm)

Further Links:
Tomboy, Céline Sciamma, 2011 (Trailer)
My son Helen, Gregor Schnitzler, 2015
The Danish Girl, Tom Hooper, 2015
Ma Vie En Rose / My Life in PinkAlain Berliner, 1997 (Trailer)
Tangerine - Red Band, Sean Barker, 2015
Junge im Mädchenkörper - Der harte Weg eines 12-Jährigen, Planetopia, 2013
Real Life: Transgender Children, 2012

Selbsthilfeorganisation Trans-Ident e.V. (Website)
TransGender in Österreich
Transkids Purple Rainbow Foundation