The epoch of the European Old Stone Age is subdivided in three periods: Lower Paleolithic, Middle Paleolithic, Upper Paleolithic. The human living in the Upper Paleolithic had a nomadic life style, but settled temporarily in fixed locations. He was hunterer-gatherer, lived in clans, life expectance was low. We have no ascertained information about the women's position in the society of this period. We are in the dark about the intellectual world of the stone-age people. In her article about the "Venus vom Hohlefels"[1] Gabriele Uhlmann explains that people in those times lived in "Matrilocal Residences". That means, that "people lived together with their mother, their siblings and other children and grandchildren of their grandmothers"[2] – so with the matrilineal clan. Fathers were missing. There were no permanent life partners and fathers had no obligations. Considering this way of living it is comprehensible that in religions arised the idea of a primordial mother.[3] This concept might be reflected in the upper paleolithic sculptures, because mainly female sculptures were found.
The name "Venus" for the figurines derives from the year 1864. At this time was found the first sculpture dating from the Old Stone Age, called "Venus impudique"[4] by the Vicomte de Vibraye. The french word "Impudique" means "immoral". De Vibraye interpreted it as "totally nude", what in these times was considered as immoral[5]. Usually a Venus, in the sense of a nude woman, was represented with the pudica gesture (lat. shameful), covering her breasts with one hand and her vulva with the other one.[6] All figures are sculptured without faces and legs, but with completely shaped genitalia. They seem true-to-life, but there must not have been any naturalistic model. They rather stand for the figures' symbolism. In figures found in Western and Central Europe are depicted the primary sexual characteristics.[7]
The notion of "Venus" is ambiguous and might lead to misinterpretations regarding sense and purpose of the figures. Today's scientists consider rather unlikely the interpretation that the figures stood for fertility. People were not interested in having a lot of children, because they normally attracted attention and time and thus distracted them from hunting.[8] Irenäus Eibl-Eibesfeldt qualifies the sculptures as magic figures that emanate force, have power, give protection and have an apotropaic function.[9]

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Die Steinzeit war gar nicht so, Tages-Anzeiger, 27.03.2018 (Artikel)

 1-1-Venus von Hohlefels-Vorsch  1-2-La Ferrassie-Vorsch  1-3-Venus von Willendorf-Vorsch  1-4-Venus von Laussel-Vorsch 1-5-Venus von Lespugue-Vorsch 1-6-Roc aux Sorciers-Vorsch    leer-1