CLASSICISM 1770 – 1850

From this period on occurred a change in the definition and the course of eras. There does no longer exist one favoured style for all genres of art. From an historical point of view the changes in the society are due to the Industrial Revolution (invention of the steam engine, construction of the first railway lines). The bourgeoisie played an increasingly significant role. Besides church and aristocracy even the state and the bourgeois were purchasers of works of art engendering a change of the picture's motifs. The demonstration of power and self-dramatization of monarchs and the church gradually faded into the background. The artists now are in the position to decide more autonomously what they want to paint. Everday-life and nature are depicted, photography replaces portrayal painting. In Italy, France, Spain and England this artistic movement is called Neo-classicism, in our part of the world we refer to as Classicism.[1] The artists considered Roman and Greek Antiquity as perfect, characterized by noble simplicity and quiet greatness. Scenes from Antiquity had been reproduced and sometimes completed with a patriotic background. The exuberance and variety of colors proper of the Baroque painting disappears. Clear lines, a flat application of paint and cool colors dominate the narrative of the pictures. Gestes and facial expressions are reduced, the composition resides in itself, the sensual passion of the Baroque dames is replaced by a cool distance. In the Age of Enlightenment it is not sufficient to depict a woman in a sensual way, her inner spirit, her virtue shall be shown, too. In the 18th century the woman still had to remain in her passive roles. She was responsible for the house, the children and her husband's wellbeing. She was not permitted to get higher education. The perfect woman should be virtuous, decent, humble. Since Antiquityy is the inspiring example of classicism even the representation of the female genitalia has been adopted: a smooth pubic triangle without pubic hair or vaginal slit. The Revolutionary Architecture also is a part of the classicism. Architects, mainly in France, designed utopic buildings that not had been constructed very often. There occurred a change from courty to bourgeois architecture, where the artist puts the human ratio in the focus.[2] So the used form should imply the purpose the architecture had been built for. Decorations and ornaments were no longer applied, the goal was an architecture characterized by simple basic shapes and a clear alignment.

 14-40-Figures Lascives Lequeu-Vorsch  14-41-Figures Lascives 2 Lequeu-Vorsch  14-42-Die nackte Maja Goja-Vorsch  14-43-Das tuerkische Bad Ingres-Vorsch